Statistical methods for analyzing repeated measures

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 1999 Nov;42(3):157-62. doi: 10.1016/s1056-8719(00)00066-6.


Repeated measurements arise frequently in biomedical research. In many situations, the scientific question of interest concerns finding differences in the measurements between groups. This question is frequently addressed by using analysis of variance-type methods that fail to incorporate information regarding the repeated sampling design of the experiment. In this paper, we provide an introduction to nonstatisticians of two approaches for analyzing such data. The procedures can be performed by using available software. These methods are illustrated on data from a preclinical study conducted by ZymoGenetics.

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical*
  • Dobutamine / pharmacology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Enalapril / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Models, Statistical
  • Myocardial Infarction / drug therapy
  • Myocardial Infarction / physiopathology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Statistics as Topic / methods*
  • Ventricular Function, Left / drug effects


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Dobutamine
  • Enalapril