The relationships between delayed apoptosis, polyploid 'giant' cells and reproductive survivors were studied in p53-mutated lymphoma cells after DNA damage. Following severe genotoxic insult with irradiation or chemotherapy, cells arrest at the G(2)-M cell cycle check-point for up to 5 days before undergoing a few rounds of aberrant mitoses. The cells then enter endoreduplication cycles resulting in the formation of polyploid giant cells. Subsequently the majority of the giant cells die, providing the main source of delayed apoptosis; however, a small proportion survives. Kinetic analyses show a reciprocal relationship between the polyploid cells and the diploid stem line, with the stem line suppressed during polyploid cell formation and restituted after giant cell disintegration. The restituted cell-line behaves with identical kinetics to the parent line, once re-irradiated. When giant cells are isolated and followed in labelling experiments, the clonogenic survivors appear to arise from these cells. These findings imply that an exchange exists between the endocyclic (polyploid) and mitotic (diploid or tetraploid) populations during the restitution period and that giant cells are not always reproductively dead as previously supposed. We propose that the formation of giant cells and their subsequent complex breakdown and subnuclear reorganization may represent an important response of p53-mutated tumours to DNA damaging agents and provide tumours with a mechanism of repair and resistance to such treatments.
Copyright 2000 Academic Press.