Cloning and characterization of human estrogen receptor beta promoter

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Aug 28;275(2):682-9. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.2000.3363.


Estrogen receptors beta (ERbeta) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors that play critical roles in regulating genes involved in a wide array of biological processes. To investigate regulation of tissue-specific expression of ERbeta, we cloned and characterized a 2.1-kilobase 5'-flanking region of the human ERbeta gene. Two major transcription start sites were identified by primer extension and rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA end. The human ERbeta proximal promoter contains both TATA box and initiator element (Inr) and is GC-rich with a GC content of 65%. An Alu repeat sequence containing an ER-dependent transcription enhancer exists between -1416 and -1703. The full-length 5'-flanking sequence of ERbeta fused to a luciferase reporter exhibited functional promoter activity in ERbeta-positive TSUPr1 cell, but not in ERbeta-negative DU145 cells. In addition, DNase I protection assays of the proximal promoter showed unique protection patterns with nuclear extracts from TSUPr1 cells and ERbeta negative HeLa cells, suggesting presence of cell-specific trans-acting factors that mediate tissue/cell-specific ERbeta expression. Serial deletion analysis revealed that a 293-bp region encompassing the TATA box and Inr element possesses basal promoter activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA
  • Estrogen Receptor beta
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Receptors, Estrogen / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Estrogen Receptor beta
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Transcription Factors
  • DNA

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF191544