Effective antifungal therapy must be long-term, nondamaging, penetrating to the eye, and highly active against each patient's fungus. Results of antifungal sensitivity testing of 61 collected ocular fungal pathogens and observations in 25 cases treated with one of the nonpolyene antifungal drugs indicated that infection was rapidly controlled and eradicated with restoration of visual acuity, determined by the degree of disorganization present at the time of commencement of rational specific antifungal therapy. Pimaricin has the widest spectrum, a medium level of activity, and rather poor penetration but is recommended as an antifungal prophylactic and as first-line-therapy for ocular fungal disease while awaiting identification and sensitivity testing of the fungus. Flucytosine combined with amphotericin B, or possibly with clotrimazole or miconazole, is recommended for Candida infections. Clotrimazole is the drug of choice for Aspergillus species although miconazole and econazole are more effective with some isolates. Miconazole and econazole are recommended for miscellaneous filamentous fungi although clotrimazole or thiabendazole are superior in some cases. Each of these drugs may be useful in patients infected with Fusarium who do not respond to primaricin. In these cases, drug use should be guided by the results of antifungal sensitivity testing. In addition to medical antifungal therapy some eyes may require excisional keratoplasty with the lens removal and evacuation of the posterior chamber and anterior vitreous cavity.