This review summarizes the progress made in our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis in the last few years, during which the functional roles of many of the 23 peroxins (proteins involved in peroxisomal protein import and peroxisome biogenesis) have become clearer. Previous reviews in the field have focussed on the metabolic functions of peroxisomes, aspects of import/biogenesis the role of peroxins in human disease, and involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum in peroxisome membrane biogenesis as well as the degradation of this organelle. This review refers to some of the earlier work for the sake of introduction and continuity but deals primarily with the more recent progress. The principal areas of progress are the identification of new peroxins, definition of protein-protein interactions among peroxins leading to the recognition of complexes involved in peroxisomal protein import, insight into the biogenesis of peroxisomal membrane proteins, and, of most importance, the elucidation of the role of many conserved peroxins in human disease. Given the rapid progress in the field, this review also highlights some of the unanswered questions that remain to be tackled.