Aminoacyl-tRNAs are substrates for translation and are pivotal in determining how the genetic code is interpreted as amino acids. The function of aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis is to precisely match amino acids with tRNAs containing the corresponding anticodon. This is primarily achieved by the direct attachment of an amino acid to the corresponding tRNA by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, although intrinsic proofreading and extrinsic editing are also essential in several cases. Recent studies of aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis, mainly prompted by the advent of whole genome sequencing and the availability of a vast body of structural data, have led to an expanded and more detailed picture of how aminoacyl-tRNAs are synthesized. This article reviews current knowledge of the biochemical, structural, and evolutionary facets of aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis.