On-line 3-dimensional confocal imaging in vivo

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Sep;41(10):2945-53.


Purpose: In vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF) can provide a 3-D stack of high-resolution corneal images and allows objective measurements of corneal sublayer thickness and backscattering. However, current systems require time-consuming off-line image processing and analysis on multiple software platforms. Furthermore, there is a trade off between the CMTF speed and measurement precision. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel on-line system for in vivo corneal imaging and analysis that overcomes these limitations.

Methods: A tandem scanning confocal microscope (TSCM) was used for corneal imaging. The TSCM video camera was interfaced directly to a PC image acquisition board to implement real-time digitization. Software was developed to allow in vivo 2-D imaging, CMTF image acquisition, interactive 3-D reconstruction, and analysis of CMTF data to be performed on line in a single user-friendly environment. A procedure was also incorporated to separate the odd/even video fields, thereby doubling the CMTF sampling rate and theoretically improving the precision of CMTF thickness measurements by a factor of two.

Results: In vivo corneal examinations of a normal human and a photorefractive keratectomy patient are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the new system. Improvements in the convenience, speed, and functionality of in vivo CMTF image acquisition, display, and analysis are demonstrated.

Conclusions: This is the first full-featured software package designed for in vivo TSCM imaging of the cornea, which performs both 2-D and 3-D image acquisition, display, and processing as well as CMTF analysis. The use of a PC platform and incorporation of easy to use, on line, and interactive features should help to improve the clinical utility of this technology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cornea / cytology*
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Microscopy, Confocal / methods*
  • Online Systems*