Mechanisms and functions of AT(1) angiotensin receptor internalization

Regul Pept. 2000 Jul 28;91(1-3):29-44. doi: 10.1016/s0167-0115(00)00137-3.


The type 1 (AT(1)) angiotensin receptor, which mediates the known physiological and pharmacological actions of angiotensin II, activates numerous intracellular signaling pathways and undergoes rapid internalization upon agonist binding. Morphological and biochemical studies have shown that agonist-induced endocytosis of the AT(1) receptor occurs via clathrin-coated pits, and is dependent on two regions in the cytoplasmic tail of the receptor. However, it is independent of G protein activation and signaling, and does not require the conserved NPXXY motif in the seventh transmembrane helix. The dependence of internalization of the AT(1) receptor on a cytoplasmic serine-threonine-rich region that is phosphorylated during agonist stimulation suggests that endocytosis is regulated by phosphorylation of the AT(1) receptor tail. beta-Arrestins have been implicated in the desensitization and endocytosis of several G protein-coupled receptors, but the exact nature of the adaptor protein required for association of the AT(1) receptor with clathrin-coated pits, and the role of dynamin in the internalization process, are still controversial. There is increasing evidence for a role of internalization in sustained signal generation from the AT(1) receptor. Several aspects of the mechanisms and specific function of AT(1) receptor internalization, including its precise mode and route of endocytosis, and the potential roles of cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors, remain to be elucidated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arrestins / metabolism
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Cytoplasm / metabolism
  • Dynamins
  • Endocytosis
  • GTP Phosphohydrolases / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Ligands
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Models, Biological
  • Mutation
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Structure, Secondary
  • Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1
  • Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2
  • Receptors, Angiotensin / genetics
  • Receptors, Angiotensin / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Angiotensin / physiology*
  • beta-Arrestins


  • Arrestins
  • Ligands
  • Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1
  • Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2
  • Receptors, Angiotensin
  • beta-Arrestins
  • GTP Phosphohydrolases
  • Dynamins