Structure-activity relationship of piperine and its synthetic analogues for their inhibitory potentials of rat hepatic microsomal constitutive and inducible cytochrome P450 activities

Bioorg Med Chem. 2000 Jan;8(1):251-68. doi: 10.1016/s0968-0896(99)00273-4.


Inhibitors of drug metabolism have important implications in pharmaco-toxicology and agriculture. We have reported earlier that piperine, a major alkaloid of black and long peppers inhibits both constitutive and inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent drug metabolising enzymes. In the present study, an attempt has been made to prepare several novel synthetic analogues so as to relate various modifications in the parent molecule to the inhibition of CYP activities. Two types of mono-oxygenase reactions arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and 7-methoxycoumarin-O-demethylase (MOCD) have been studied. Inhibition studies were investigated in rat microsomal fraction prepared from untreated, 3MC- and PB- treated rat liver in vitro. Modifications were introduced into the piperine molecule: (i) in the phenyl nucleus, (ii) in the side chain and (iii) in the basic moiety. Thus, 38 compounds have been subjected to such studies, and simultaneously an attempt has also been made to arrive at the structure-activity relationship of synthetic analogues. In general, most of the inhibitory potential of the parent molecule is lost with modification in either of the three components of piperine. Saturation of the side chain resulted in significantly enhanced inhibition of CYP while modifications in the phenyl and basic moieties in few analogues offered maximal selectivity in inhibiting either constitutive or inducible CYP activities. Thus few novel analogues as CYP inactivators have been synthesized which may have important consequences in pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of drugs.

MeSH terms

  • Alkaloids*
  • Animals
  • Benzodioxoles
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / biosynthesis
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism*
  • Enzyme Induction
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemical synthesis
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Microsomes, Liver / drug effects*
  • Microsomes, Liver / enzymology
  • Piperidines / chemical synthesis
  • Piperidines / chemistry*
  • Piperidines / pharmacology*
  • Polyunsaturated Alkamides
  • Rats
  • Spectrum Analysis
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Alkaloids
  • Benzodioxoles
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Piperidines
  • Polyunsaturated Alkamides
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • piperine