Transmission/disequilibrium tests using multiple tightly linked markers

Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Oct;67(4):936-46. doi: 10.1086/303073. Epub 2000 Aug 31.


Transmission/disequilibrium tests have attracted much attention in genetic studies of complex traits because (a) their power to detect genes having small to moderate effects may be greater than that of other linkage methods and (b) they are robust against population stratification. Highly polymorphic markers have become available throughout the human genome, and many such markers can be studied within short physical distances. Studies using multiple tightly linked markers are more informative than those using single markers. However, such information has not been fully utilized by existing statistical methods, resulting in possibly substantial loss of information in the identification of genes underlying complex traits. In this article, we propose novel statistical methods to analyze multiple tightly linked markers. Simulation studies comparing our methods versus existing methods suggest that our methods are more powerful. Finally, we apply the proposed methods to study genetic linkage between the dopamine D2 receptor locus and alcoholism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alcoholism / genetics
  • Chromosome Mapping / methods*
  • Chromosome Mapping / statistics & numerical data
  • Computer Simulation
  • Gene Frequency / genetics
  • Genetic Markers / genetics*
  • Germany
  • Haplotypes / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hungary
  • Linkage Disequilibrium*
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics
  • Research Design
  • Sample Size


  • Genetic Markers
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2