The ECO*SENS Project is the first international survey to investigate the prevalence and susceptibility of pathogens causing community-acquired, uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women. At 240 centres in 17 countries, female patients presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated UTIs were asked to provide a urine sample for testing for the presence of leucocytes and bacteria. The bacteria were identified and their susceptibility to 12 antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of UTIs was determined. The objective of the survey was to collect 5000 urine samples to obtain approximately 3500 isolates of defined uropathogens. This interim report includes the results from 1960 urine samples, 75% of which contained a uropathogen. Escherichia coli accounted for the majority (80%) of uropathogens isolated in all 17 countries. The rates of resistance among E. coli strains were: ampicillin and sulphamethoxazole, 30%; trimethoprim alone or with sulphamethoxazole, 15%; nalidixic acid, 6%; ciprofloxacin, 3%; amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, mecillinam, cefadroxil, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin, 2%. The use of ampicillin, sulphonamides and trimethoprim alone or with sulphamethoxazole needs to be reconsidered. The seemingly rapid increase in quinolone resistance among community-acquired E. coli in some of the countries gives cause for concern.