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, 275 (46), 35715-22

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation

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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation

T Miyahara et al. J Biol Chem.

Abstract

The present study examined the roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) in activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), a pivotal event in liver fibrogenesis. RNase protection assay detected mRNA for PPARgamma1 but not that for the adipocyte-specific gamma2 isoform in HSC isolated from sham-operated rats, whereas the transcripts for neither isoforms were detectable in HSC from cholestatic liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction confirmed a 70% reduction in PPARgamma mRNA level in HSC from BDL. Nuclear extracts from BDL cells showed an expected diminution of binding to PPAR-responsive element, whereas NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding were increased. Treatment of cultured-activated HSC with ligands for PPARgamma (10 microm 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15dPGJ(2)); 0.1 approximately 10 microm BRL49653) inhibited DNA and collagen synthesis without affecting the cell viability. Suppression of HSC collagen by 15dPGJ(2) was abrogated 70% by the concomitant treatment with a PPARgamma antagonist (GW9662). HSC DNA and collagen synthesis were inhibited by WY14643 at the concentrations known to activate both PPARalpha and gamma (>100 microm) but not at those that only activate PPARalpha (<10 microm) or by a synthetic PPARalpha-selective agonist (GW9578). 15dPGJ(2) reduced alpha1(I) procollagen, smooth muscle alpha-actin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA levels while inducing matrix metalloproteinase-3 and CD36. 15dPGJ(2) and BRL49653 inhibited alpha1(I) procollagen promoter activity. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (10 ng/ml) reduced PPARgamma mRNA, and this effect was prevented by the treatment with 15dPGJ(2). These results demonstrate that HSC activation is associated with the reductions in PPARgamma expression and PPAR-responsive element binding in vivo and is reversed by the treatment with PPARgamma ligands in vitro. These findings implicate diminished PPARgamma signaling in molecular mechanisms underlying activation of HSC in liver fibrogenesis and the potential therapeutic value of PPARgamma ligands for liver fibrosis.

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