The detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid by immunoblotting is useful for the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). We found 14-3-3 protein in 10 of 80 (12.5%) patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PNDs), whose presenting symptoms may mimic those of CJD. In 47 of 48 CJD patients, the 14-3-3 protein was detected as a single band, and it was detected as a double band in 1 patient. The double-band pattern was observed in 9 of 10 14-3-3 protein-positive patients with PNDs. The 14-3-3 protein assay may be positive in PND patients, but the immunoblotting pattern distinguishes most PND samples from those of CJD.