The precision of any given method for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) is important in relation to the interpretation of repeated measurements over time, e.g. to monitor the course of suspected osteoporosis or follow the effect of therapy. In the present study a new bone densitometer using the digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) method (Pronosco X-posure Systemtrade mark) is investigated with respect to its short-term precision. The study was carried out on two groups of females, one consisting of 20 women between the ages of 30 and 40, and the other of 20 post-menopausal women above the age of 64. The mean age of the premenopausal women was 35.2 years and the mean DXR BMD was 0.578 g cm-2. The mean age of the post-menopausal women was 68.2 years and the mean DXR BMD was 0.489 g cm-2. The short-term precision of the two groups was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (CV%) and corresponding 90% confidence intervals. The coefficient of variation in the premenopausal group was 0.68% with a 90% confidence interval of 0. 57%-0.83%. The coefficient of variation in the postmenopausal group was 0.61% with a 90% confidence interval of 0.52-0.75%. It can be concluded from the present study that the short-term in vivo precision error of the DXR method is low in both pre- and post-menopausal women. When the results of the study are compared to data reported in the literature, the performance of the DXR method seems to be at least equivalent with peripheral DXA.