In this study we evaluated the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy List for Drug users (SELD). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on separate subject samples revealed that drug-users' self-efficacy was best described by three correlated dimensions: environmental factors, negative mood, and positive mood. The validity of this three-factor solution was supported by the pattern of associations with severity of drug use as assessed by the Addiction Severity Index. In addition, lower self-efficacy scores were related to a higher number of days of experiencing problems related to drug use. In conclusion we state that the SELD is a reliable and valid instrument to measure abstinence self-efficacy in drug users.