Morphometry of Macaca mulatta forelimb. I. Shoulder and elbow muscles and segment inertial parameters

J Morphol. 2000 Sep;245(3):206-24. doi: 10.1002/1097-4687(200009)245:3<206::AID-JMOR3>3.0.CO;2-U.


The present study examined the morphometric properties of the forelimb, including the inertial properties of the body segments and the morphometric parameters of 21 muscles spanning the shoulder and/or elbow joints of six Macaca mulatta and three M. fascicularis. Five muscle parameters are presented: optimal fascicle length (L(0)(M)), tendon slack length (L(S)(T)), physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), pennation angle (alpha(0)), and muscle mass (m). Linear regressions indicate that muscle mass, and to a lesser extent PCSA, correlated with total body weight. Segment mass, center-of-mass, and the moment of inertia of the upper arm, forearm, and hand are also presented. Our data indicate that for some segments, radius of gyration (rho) predicts segment moment of inertia better than linear regressions based on total body weight. Key differences between the monkey and human forelimb are highlighted.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arm / anatomy & histology*
  • Biophysical Phenomena
  • Biophysics
  • Elbow / anatomy & histology
  • Macaca fascicularis / anatomy & histology
  • Macaca mulatta / anatomy & histology*
  • Movement
  • Muscle, Skeletal / anatomy & histology
  • Shoulder / anatomy & histology