In laboratory rodents, caloric restriction (CR) retards several age-dependent physiological and biochemical changes in skeletal muscle, including increased steady-state levels of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. We used immunogold electron microscopic (EM) techniques with antibodies raised against 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) -modified proteins, dinitrophenol, and nitrotyrosine to quantify and localize the age-dependent accrual of oxidative damage in rhesus monkey vastus lateralis skeletal muscle. Using immunogold EM analysis of muscle from rhesus monkeys ranging in age from 2 to 34 years old, a fourfold maximal increase in levels of HNE-modified proteins was observed. Likewise, carbonyl levels increased approximately twofold with aging. Comparing 17- to 23-year-old normally fed to age-matched monkeys subjected to CR for 10 years, levels of HNE-modified proteins, carbonyls, and nitrotyrosine in skeletal muscle from the CR group were significantly less than control group values. Oxidative damage largely localized to myofibrils, with lesser labeling in other subcellular compartments. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, and protein carbonyls were measured biochemically and confirmed the morphological data. Our study is the first to quantify morphologically and localize the age-dependent accrual of oxidative damage in mammalian skeletal muscle and to demonstrate that oxidative damage in primates is lowered by CR.