Renal biopsy is crucial for the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of many kidney diseases. Although percutaneous renal biopsy is considered a routine safe procedure in children, the optimal length of in-hospital observation following the procedure is not yet known. We prospectively studied two comparable groups of children to compare the success and safety of performing native renal biopsy as an outpatient procedure versus keeping the children hospitalized post biopsy. Doppler ultrasonography of the biopsied kidney was performed approximately 2 weeks after the procedure. For 40 children the biopsy was performed on a same-day basis (study group) and another 15 children were kept for overnight observation (control group). All biopsies yielded adequate tissue for histopathological diagnosis. There was no difference between the two groups in the amount of reported pain and analgesics used after the procedure. Only 1 child in the study group was readmitted 5 days after the biopsy for 48 h, but no major complications were detected. The incidence of post-biopsy intra- or perirenal hematoma detection by sonography was not statistically different between the two groups (39% study group, 43% control group). Follow-up imaging studies were performed on 10 of the 20 children who had an early post-biopsy hematoma and all were completely normal. Patients and their families appreciated being discharged home the same day. In addition, total charges for hospitalization were significantly less for the study group than the control group. We conclude that in selected patients, same-day discharge after renal biopsy may be performed safely without an increased risk of complications.