We studied whether a short course of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administered to normal donors immediately before bone marrow (BM) harvest would shorten time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment in matched related allogeneic BM recipients. Twenty-nine normal donors received 4 consecutive daily subcutaneous injections of G-CSF (median dose, 12.1 microg/kg per day; range, 9.6-15.7 microg/kg per day) immediately before BM harvest. Donors tolerated G-CSF well, with only mild myalgias and arthralgias, and BM was easy to aspirate. The BM harvest contained a median of 5.3 x 10(8) white blood cells (WBCs)/kg (range, 3.1-11.1 x 10(8) WBCs/kg) and 2.5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells per kg (range, 1.5-7.3 x 10(6) CD34+ cells per kg). Median times to neutrophil (18 days [range, 11-30 days] versus 22 days [range, 16-36 days]; P = .05) and platelet (22 days [range, 15-55 days] versus 27 days [range, 18-46 days]; P = .04) engraftment were statistically shorter than those of historical control subjects whose donors had not received G-CSF before BM harvest. However, secondary engraftment-dependent outcomes including red blood cell and platelet transfusions, febrile days, days on antibiotics, days from transplant to hospital discharge, and days in hospital during the first 60 days after transplant were not statistically different from historical control subjects. We conclude that G-CSF administered to normal donors immediately before harvest facilitates BM aspiration, increases the WBC content of the harvest, and hastens neutrophil and platelet engraftment compared with historical control subjects.