Clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres: a novel member of the perivascular epithelioid clear cell family of tumors with a predilection for children and young adults

Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 Sep;24(9):1239-46. doi: 10.1097/00000478-200009000-00007.


The perivascular epithelioid cell family of tumors (PEComas), defined by their co-expression of melanocytic and muscle markers, includes angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyoma, and clear cell "sugar" tumors of the lung, pancreas, and uterus. We present seven cases of a unique and previously unrecognized tumor of children and young adults, which represents a new addition to the PEComa group of tumors. Culled from three institutions over a 50-year period, all cases occurred in or immediately adjacent to the ligamentum teres and falciform ligament. Six patients were female and one male; their ages ranged from 3 to 21 years (median, 11 yrs). Tumor sizes ranged from 5 to 20 cm (median, 8 cm). All cases consisted of clear to faintly eosinophilic spindled cells arranged in fascicular and nested patterns. The cells had small but distinct nucleoli and low mitotic activity. Immunohistochemically, all cases were positive with antibodies to gp100 protein (HMB-45) and negative for S-100 protein. In three of the seven cases studied immunohistochemically, the tumors expressed smooth muscle actin, melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF), and myosin, but not desmin. No expression of the TSC2 gene product, tuberin, was seen in three cases. One case studied cytogenetically disclosed a t(3;10). Follow-up data, available in six of seven cases (median duration, 18 mos), showed five patients to be free of disease and one to have a radiographically presumed lung metastasis. We think these tumors comprise a new entity for which we propose the term "clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres." The differential diagnosis of these tumors includes clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses, leiomyosarcoma, and angiomyolipoma.

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Neoplasms / genetics
  • Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Abdominal Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / genetics
  • Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology*
  • Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / ultrastructure
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Epithelioid Cells / pathology
  • Epithelioid Cells / ultrastructure
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Ligaments / pathology*
  • Ligaments / ultrastructure
  • Male
  • Melanocytes / pathology
  • Melanocytes / ultrastructure
  • Muscle Neoplasms / genetics
  • Muscle Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Muscle Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • Muscle, Smooth / pathology
  • Muscle, Smooth / ultrastructure