Thirteen overhand-throwing athletes who failed at least 3 months of physical therapy while restricted from throwing and who demonstrated a positive modified relocation test at 90 degrees, 110 degrees, and/or 120 degrees were clinically and arthroscopically examined. On arthroscopic examination, all patients demonstrated articular surface pathology. Eleven patients had fraying of the undersurface of the rotator cuff, and 10 patients had fraying of the posterosuperior labrum. With 90 degrees shoulder abduction, 8 patients had rotator cuff contact with the posterosuperior labrum. When the shoulder was abducted to 110 degrees, all patients demonstrated such contact. At 120 degrees of abduction, 12 patients revealed contact. The presence or absence of pain during the modified relocation test correlated with the presence or absence of cuff contact with the posterosuperior labrum 79% of the time. Six patients had a positive modified relocation test at all levels of abduction. These patients included 2 with SLAP lesions, 1 with a Bankart lesion, and 1 with a complete tear of the rotator cuff.