Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are cofactors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, but the specific role of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is unclear. This study aimed to examine the in vivo relationships between HSV-2 and HIV-1 in 300 women in Bangui, Central African Republic. Sera were tested for syphilis, HIV-1, HSV-2 antibody, and levels of vitamins A and E. Genital specimens were tested for other STDs. HSV-2 DNA and HIV-1 RNA were quantified in cervicovaginal lavage. The prevalences of HSV-2 antibody (91% vs. 78%, P=.02), HSV-2 shedding (43% vs. 22%, P=. 003), and levels of HSV-2 DNA (P=.01) were all significantly higher among HIV-1-seropositive than among HIV-1-seronegative women. There was a significant correlation between genital HIV-1 RNA and HSV-2 DNA levels (P=.02) among the 23 women who were shedding HSV-2 DNA. If confirmed, such associations highlight the urgent need for HSV-2 control measures in populations at high risk of both infections.