Interactions between herpes simplex virus type 2 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in African women: opportunities for intervention

J Infect Dis. 2000 Oct;182(4):1090-6. doi: 10.1086/315836. Epub 2000 Sep 8.

Abstract

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are cofactors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, but the specific role of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is unclear. This study aimed to examine the in vivo relationships between HSV-2 and HIV-1 in 300 women in Bangui, Central African Republic. Sera were tested for syphilis, HIV-1, HSV-2 antibody, and levels of vitamins A and E. Genital specimens were tested for other STDs. HSV-2 DNA and HIV-1 RNA were quantified in cervicovaginal lavage. The prevalences of HSV-2 antibody (91% vs. 78%, P=.02), HSV-2 shedding (43% vs. 22%, P=. 003), and levels of HSV-2 DNA (P=.01) were all significantly higher among HIV-1-seropositive than among HIV-1-seronegative women. There was a significant correlation between genital HIV-1 RNA and HSV-2 DNA levels (P=.02) among the 23 women who were shedding HSV-2 DNA. If confirmed, such associations highlight the urgent need for HSV-2 control measures in populations at high risk of both infections.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • Central African Republic / epidemiology
  • Cervix Uteri / microbiology
  • Cervix Uteri / virology
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / blood
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control
  • HIV-1* / isolation & purification
  • Herpes Genitalis / blood
  • Herpes Genitalis / complications*
  • Herpes Genitalis / prevention & control
  • Herpesvirus 2, Human* / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Prevalence
  • RNA, Viral / blood
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / complications
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / diagnosis
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology
  • Vagina / metabolism
  • Vagina / microbiology
  • Vagina / virology
  • Vaginal Smears
  • Viral Load
  • Virus Shedding
  • Vitamin A / blood
  • Vitamin E / blood

Substances

  • RNA, Viral
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin E