Amphotericin B is known to elicit immunomodulatory effects on neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte function. It also has been shown to induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines from human monocytes and macrophages. Release of these cytokines has been associated with the infusion-related toxicity observed after administration of this drug. The present study demonstrates that amphotericin B increases mRNA for the chemokines interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta, as well as the cell adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and CD44 in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Amphotericin B increased the concentrations of IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-1beta in a dose-dependent fashion. Amphotericin B also induced expression of ICAM-1 but not CD44 in these cells. Production of these proteins in response to amphotericin B may play a role in the immunomodulatory activity and toxicity of this antifungal agent.