Catastrophic football injuries: 1977-1998

Neurosurgery. 2000 Sep;47(3):673-5; discussion 675-7. doi: 10.1097/00006123-200009000-00029.


The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of catastrophic football head and spine injuries, in an attempt to reduce their frequency. We analyzed epidemiological and medical data from 1977 through 1998. Catastrophic football injuries are defined as football injuries that result in death, brain or spinal cord injury, or cranial or spinal fracture. All studied cord injuries involved the cervical region. During the period covered by this study, 118 athletes died as a direct result of participation in the skills of football, 200 football players received a permanent cervical cord injury, and 66 sustained a permanent cerebral injury. Most cervical injuries occurred to defensive players during the act of tackling. The axial loading mechanism of spinal cord injury was identified in 27% of tackling injuries. To further reduce catastrophic injuries, players must stop tackling with the head down and using the head as a battering ram; instead, players should use the shoulder for blocking and tackling. Other recommendations for reducing catastrophic injuries are presented.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Athletic Injuries / etiology
  • Athletic Injuries / mortality*
  • Athletic Injuries / prevention & control
  • Brain Injuries / etiology
  • Brain Injuries / mortality*
  • Brain Injuries / prevention & control
  • Cervical Vertebrae / injuries
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Football / injuries*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Skull Fractures / etiology
  • Skull Fractures / mortality*
  • Skull Fractures / prevention & control
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / etiology
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / mortality*
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / prevention & control
  • Spinal Fractures / etiology
  • Spinal Fractures / mortality*
  • Spinal Fractures / prevention & control
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Weight-Bearing