Abiomechanical study of the functions of the iliolumbar ligament in L5 spondylolysis was performed. Five fresh cadaveric specimens were used. The bilateral ilia and sacrum were fixed. Four kinds of pure moments (10 Nm) were applied to the specimens at the top (L4) vertebra: flexion, extension, and right and left axial rotations. The three-dimensional position of the L5 vertebra was measured after serial transections in: (1) the intact condition; (2) bilateral pars interarticulares of L5 transected; (3) anterior bands of the iliolumbar ligaments transected; and (4) posterior bands of the iliolumbar ligaments transected. In L5 spondylolysis, flexion and axial rotation of L5 on S1 are significantly regulated by the anterior and posterior bands of the iliolumbar ligaments (especially by the posterior bands of the ligaments). The integrity of the ligament may determine the stability of the lumbosacral junction and the amount of forward slipping of the L5 vertebra.