The effects of three-month dietary xylitol supplementation on the amounts and hexose contents of acid-soluble collagen as well as on the amounts and fluorescence of collagenase-soluble collagen were studied in healthy and streptozotocin-diabetic male rats. Collagen was extracted from skin samples. In the healthy rats, supplementation with xylitol (10%) increased the hydroxyproline content of the acid-soluble fraction and skin thickness. In diabetic rats receiving and not receiving xylitol, the acid-soluble collagen fraction was markedly lower than in healthy rats. However, its amount was significantly elevated when xylitol had been added to the diet. Supplementation with xylitol caused no changes in the amounts of collagenase-soluble fraction in either healthy or diabetic rats. Supplementation with xylitol (10%) significantly decreased the hexose content of acid-soluble collagen and the fluorescence of the collagenase-soluble fraction in both healthy and diabetic rats. The results indicate that dietary xylitol affects collagen synthesis and collagen glycosylation.