Risk of development of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2000 Sep;4(9):839-44.


Objective: To estimate the rate of development of active tuberculosis (TB) in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients, and to identify the characteristics of these patients.

Design: A total of 175 HIV-positive individuals were recruited from clinics for sexually transmitted diseases and followed up for 31 +/- 6.8 months. Clinical examination, chest X-ray, sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli and culture for mycobacteria and HIV serology were performed at the time of registration and repeated periodically.

Results: Seventeen patients had TB at intake and another 24 developed TB during follow-up, giving a breakdown rate of 6.9/100 person-years (p-y) (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.1-9.6). The attack rates were similar in tuberculin positive (7.1/100 p-y, 95%CI 3.4-10.8) and negative (6.7/100 p-y, 95%CI 2.6-10.8) patients. There was a trend towards higher mortality in patients who developed TB (10.5/100 p-y, 95%CI 4.8-15.2) compared to those who did not (6.1/100 p-y, 95%CI 3.2-8.8).

Conclusions: The results of this study provide information regarding the high risk of development of active tuberculosis and its associated mortality in HIV-infected persons. The risk of developing TB appears to be equally high in tuberculin positive and negative individuals, suggesting that new infections could play a major role in this susceptible population.

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology*
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / microbiology
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality*
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Population Surveillance
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Sputum / microbiology
  • Survival Analysis
  • Tuberculin Test
  • Tuberculosis / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis / etiology*
  • Tuberculosis / microbiology
  • Tuberculosis / mortality*