Objectives: We wished to assess the profile and outcomes of patients with ventricular septal rupture (VSR) in the setting of cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (MI).
Background: Cardiogenic shock is often seen with VSR complicating acute MI. Despite surgical therapy, mortality in such patients is high.
Methods: We analyzed 939 patients enrolled in the SHOCK Trial Registry of CS in acute infarction, comparing 55 patients whose shock was associated with VSR with 884 patients who had predominant left ventricular failure.
Results: Rupture occurred a median 16 h after infarction. Patients with VSR tended to be older (p = 0.053), were more often female (p = 0.002) and less often had previous infarction (p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.015) or smoking history (p = 0.033). They also underwent right-heart catheterization, intra-aortic balloon pumping and bypass surgery significantly more often. Although patients with rupture had less severe coronary disease, their in-hospital mortality was higher (87% vs. 61%, p < 0.001). Surgical repair was performed in 31 patients with rupture (21 had concomitant bypass surgery); 6 (19%) survived. Of the 24 patients managed medically, only 1 survived.
Conclusions: There is a high in-hospital mortality rate when CS develops as a result of VSR. Ventricular septal rupture may occur early after infarction, and women and the elderly may be more susceptible. Although the prognosis is poor, surgery remains the best therapeutic option in this setting.