Vitamin D is neither a vitamin nor a nutrient if adequate exposure to sunlight is available to produce adequate quantities of vitamin D3 in the skin. It is well known that an adequate supply of vitamin D, either from the diet or from the skin, is important for maximum bone health throughout life. The new revelation that 25(OH)D can be metabolized to 1,25(OH)2D in the colon, prostate, and skin opens a new chapter in the vitamin D story. It is quite possible that there are two levels of vitamin D sufficiency. One level requires that the serum 25(OH)D levels be at least 20 ng/mL to satisfy the body's requirement for the renal production of 1,25(OH)2D that regulates calcium absorption, and bone calcium mobilization and bone mineralization. The second level may need higher circulating levels of 25(OH)D for maximum cellular health because of the conversion of 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH)2D in extrarenal tissues, such as the prostate, colon, and skin.