Outcomes of left atrial isomerism over a 28-year period at a single institution

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Sep;36(3):908-16. doi: 10.1016/s0735-1097(00)00812-3.


Objectives: We determined long-term outcomes in a large cohort with left atrial isomerism (LAI).

Background: Left atrial isomerism is associated with a complex spectrum of cardiac and noncardiac anomalies that may impact on outcomes.

Methods: The records of all patients with LAI, born between 1970 and 1998, and treated at one center were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier survival was estimated, and independent factors associated with time-related death were identified.

Results: There were 163 patients (63% women), and extracardiac anomalies were noted in 36%, including biliary atresia in 10%. Cardiac defects included interrupted inferior caval vein in 92%, anomalous pulmonary veins in 56%, atrioventricular septal defect in 49%, pulmonary atresia or stenosis in 28% and aortic coarctation in 16%, with congenital atrioventricular block in 7%. Of 22 patients with a normal heart, 18% died of extracardiac anomalies. Of 71 patients with hearts suitable for biventricular repair, 62 (87%) had surgery, with survival of 80% at one year, 71% at five years, 66% at 10 years and 63% after 15 years. Of 70 patients with unbalanced cardiac defects suitable for single-ventricle palliation, 47 (67%) had surgery, with survival of 73% at one year, 61% at five years, 53% at 10 years and 48% at 15 years (p < 0.001). Independent factors associated with time-related death included congenital atrioventricular block, aortic coarctation, single ventricle, biliary atresia and other gastrointestinal malformations.

Conclusions: Both cardiac and noncardiac anomalies contribute to a high mortality with LAI. Cardiac transplantation may need to be a considered a primary option for selected high-risk patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple
  • Adolescent
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / etiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Electrocardiography
  • Female
  • Heart Atria / abnormalities
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / complications
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / pathology*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / surgery
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Mortality
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Survival Analysis