Study objectives: Encompassing periods preceding and following major advances in the diagnosis and management of HIV-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), the purpose of this study was to determine whether management and outcome patterns of non-HIV PCP parallel the management and outcomes of AIDS-related PCP.
Design: Retrospective review of medical records.
Setting: A 375-bed tertiary-care urban teaching hospital and referral center.
Patients: All adult patients with morphologically confirmed PCP from 1985 to 1995.
Measurements and results: From 1985 to 1995, 638 confirmed cases of PCP were identified, including 605 cases in 442 HIV-positive persons (HIV + PCP), and 33 cases in 33 non-HIV patients (non-HIV PCP). For HIV + PCP cases, a peak of 104 cases occurred in 1987, with a gradual decline to 23 in 1995. The proportion of cases requiring hospitalization declined from a peak of 91.6% in 1987 to a low of 51.6% in 1992. ICU admission was required for 6.3 to 8.2%, and mechanical ventilation for 4.7 to 5.7%. Overall mortality improved from 11.7 to 6.6%, although mortality for intubated patients remained at 50 to 60%. For the non-HIV PCP cases, 97% occurred from 1989 to 1995 with similar annual frequency, 97% required hospitalization, 69% required ICU admission, and 66% required intubation. Overall mortality was 39%, and mortality for intubated patients was 59%.
Conclusions: Despite major advances in diagnosis and management, PCP remains a significant problem in non-HIV-infected patients, and respiratory failure remains associated with a high mortality rate for patients with both HIV + PCP and non-HIV PCP.