Pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to itraconazole: a prospective cohort study

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Sep;183(3):617-20. doi: 10.1067/mob.2000.105962.


Objective: This study was undertaken to determine whether itraconazole use during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with increased risks of major malformations, spontaneous abortions, premature deliveries, and neonatal complications.

Study design: In a prospective cohort study pregnant women exposed to oral itraconazole were matched with control subjects not exposed to any known teratogens. Primary outcome was the rate of major malformations. Secondary outcomes were live birth rate, rates of spontaneous abortion and therapeutic abortion, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, and neonatal complications.

Results: A total of 229 women exposed to itraconazole were reported to the manufacturer, 198 of whom used the drug during the first trimester of pregnancy. The rate of major malformations in the study group (156 live births) was 3.2%, compared with 4.8% in the control group (187 live births; relative risk, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0. 23-1.95). The rate of any pregnancy loss was higher in the exposed group (relative risk, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-2.09). Birth weight was lower in the itraconazole group, although that difference may not be clinically significant. Gestational age at birth, rate of preterm delivery, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, and neonatal complications were comparable between the groups.

Conclusion: Our study supports the hypothesis that the use of itraconazole during pregnancy is safe. Further surveillance and reporting of pregnancy outcomes will help to support this conclusion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Spontaneous / epidemiology
  • Adult
  • Antifungal Agents / adverse effects*
  • Birth Weight
  • Cohort Studies
  • Congenital Abnormalities / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Fetal Death / epidemiology
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Itraconazole / adverse effects*
  • Obstetric Labor, Premature / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome*
  • Pregnancy Trimester, First
  • Prospective Studies


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Itraconazole