Our previous report demonstrated that high concentration of taurine is present in rat milk for the first few days of lactation and plays an important role in the body growth of rat pups. In the present study, gene expression of rate-limiting enzyme for taurine biosynthesis, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) were examined in rat mammary gland. By RT-PCR, CSD mRNA was found to be expressed in rat mammary gland like that in the liver. The expression level of CSD mRNA in the mammary gland was higher in the earlier lactational stage (days 1 and 6 of lactation) than that in the later lactational stage (day 14). CSD mRNA expression in the mammary gland of non-pregnant rats was only a trace level. By in situ hybridization analysis, CSD mRNA was demonstrated in the epithelial cells of the mammary gland. These results suggest that high concentrations of taurine in the milk are at least partially resulted from de novo synthesis of taurine in mammary gland epithelial cells and that the expression pattern of CSD mRNA may be responsible for the changes in taurine levels in the milk during a lactational period.