Several clinical studies suggest that estradiol acts as a potent growth and protective factor in the adult brain. Postmenopausal women experience permanent hypoestrogenicity and suffer from increased risk of brain injury associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen replacement therapy appears to decrease the risk and severity of these neurodegenerative conditions. Studies using animal models have shown that estradiol exerts similar effects in rodents and can enhance cell survival and induce synaptic plasticity. Therefore, we undertook studies to assess whether estradiol treatment can decrease brain injury and cell death induced by an experimental model of ischemia and whether aging animals remain responsive to the protective effects of estradiol. We will review results from recent studies that demonstrate that 1) in young animals, estrogens exert profound protective effects against ischemic brain injury induced by cerebral artery occlusion and 2) the response of aging animals has been tested with varying results. We will discuss and compare our experimental findings that utilize a permanent cerebral artery occlusion model and physiological levels of estradiol replacement therapy in young and middle-aged rats with those of previous studies. These observations provide important insights into the potential protective actions of estrogen replacement therapy on age- and disease-related processes in the brain.