Heterogenous fusion transcripts involving the NUP98 gene and HOXD13 gene activation in a case of acute myeloid leukemia with the t(2;11)(q31;p15) translocation

Leukemia. 2000 Sep;14(9):1621-9. doi: 10.1038/sj.leu.2401881.


We report the characterization of a rare chromosomal translocation, a t(2;11)(q31;p15), which occurred in a patient with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M4). By 3'-RACE and RT-PCR analyses, two kinds of NUP98-HOXD13 fusion transcript were detected. In addition, we identified a novel fusion transcript, NUP98-FN1, in the same patient. Ectopic expression of the wild-type HOXD13 gene was also observed in the patient, suggesting that HOXD13 contributes to the development of this type of leukemia. The NUP98-HOXD13 fusion transcript was predicted to encode a 552 or 569-amino acid protein containing the Phe-Gly (FG) repeat region of NUP98 and the homeodomain of HOXD13. The NUP98-FN1 fusion transcript was predicted to encode a 482 or 499-amino acid protein consisting of the same N-terminal region of NUP98 and a C-terminal region of 12 amino acids derived from a previously unidentified sequence. We isolated and characterized the chromosomal breakpoints. The breakpoint at 11p15 is mapped within a LINE repetitive element in a 9 kb intron of NUP98, and more than 60% of the sequenced 3 kb region surrounding the breakpoint junction consists of repetitive elements. The other breakpoint at 2q31 is in an intron of FN1, which is located 7 kb upstream of HOXD13, and the repetitive sequence content of the breakpoint junction is low. Local sequence duplications at genomic breakpoints suggest that the t(2;11) translocation is mediated through staggered double-strand DNA breaks. These results throw light on the mechanisms responsible for the generation of t(2;11) translocation and on the processes leading to t(2;11) leukemia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome Breakage
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Neoplasm / analysis
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics*
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins*
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • RNA
  • Transcription Factors*
  • Translocation, Genetic*


  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • HOXD13 protein, human
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • RNA, recombinant
  • Transcription Factors
  • nuclear pore complex protein 98
  • RNA