In the present paper, we evaluate determination of circulating anodic (CAA) and cathodic (CCA) antigen for the diagnosis of an active Schistosoma infection in humans, in comparison to the diagnostic performance of parasitological examination and the demonstration of specific antibodies. Illustrated by three different studies, which all deal with the diagnosis of either recent or low intensity infections, we further discuss our experiences with these diagnostic methods. For the diagnosis of recent infections, specific antibody determination showed to be very sensitive, particularly in individuals originating from non-endemic areas. For the assessment of cure and for the diagnosis of active infections in endemic areas, the methods of choice are parasitological examination and CAA or CCA determination. Depending on infection levels of the target population and on logistic conditions, CAA and CCA determination may either replace parasitological examination or, in the case of light infections, may be used as a complementary diagnostic tool.