No effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 on short-term satiety and energy intake in man

Br J Nutr. 1999 Apr;81(4):273-9.


Centrally administered glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibits feeding in fasted rats, but its role in human satiety has been largely unexplored. The present study investigated the effect of peripheral GLP-1 infusion on gastric emptying and satiety in man. Ten non-obese male subjects were infused in a randomized single-blind within-subject crossover study using saline infusion as control. They received either a GLP-1 infusion (1.2 pmol/kg per min) or a saline infusion for 1 h, at 18.00 hours. At 20 min after starting the infusion the gastric emptying of a 400 ml water load was measured. Subjects completed behavioural self-rating scales to assess hunger and satiety. After 40 min subjects were given a buffet meal ad libitum and their food intake was recorded. GLP-1 infusion raised circulating GLP-1 concentrations to approximately twice those seen following a meal. It did not affect circulating insulin levels but caused a small fall in glucose levels. Gastric emptying of the water load was significantly delayed by the GLP-1 infusion. Energy intake from the buffet was unaffected by GLP-1 infusion. Self-assessment of hunger and satiety was similarly unaffected by the infusion before the buffet meal, although subjects tended to be less hungry after the buffet meal following GLP-1 infusion (P < 0.09). GLP-1 infusion delayed gastric emptying but had a minimal effect on food intake and satiety. This study casts doubts on whether GLP-1 is a major satiety factor in man, although a raised circulating plasma glucose level, as would normally occur postprandially, might be necessary for GLP-1 to increase satiety.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite Regulation / drug effects
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Drinking
  • Energy Intake / drug effects*
  • Gastric Emptying / drug effects
  • Glucagon / blood
  • Glucagon / pharmacology*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Humans
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Male
  • Peptide Fragments / blood
  • Peptide Fragments / pharmacology*
  • Protein Precursors / blood
  • Protein Precursors / pharmacology*
  • Satiation / drug effects*
  • Single-Blind Method


  • Peptide Fragments
  • Protein Precursors
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon