Delayed medical care after diagnosis in a US national probability sample of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus

Arch Intern Med. 2000 Sep 25;160(17):2614-22. doi: 10.1001/archinte.160.17.2614.


Objective: To identify health care and patient factors associated with delayed initial medical care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

Design: Survey of a national probability sample of persons with HIV in care.

Setting: Medical practices in the contiguous United States.

Patients: Cohort A (N = 1540) was diagnosed by February 1993 and was in care within 3 years; cohort B (N = 1960) was diagnosed by February 1995 and was in care within 1 year of diagnosis.

Main outcome measure: More than 3- or 6-month delay.

Results: Delay of more than 3 months occurred for 29% of cohort A (median, 1 year) and 17% of cohort B. Having a usual source of care at diagnosis reduced delay, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.77) in cohort A and 0. 70 (95% CI, 0.50-0.99) in cohort B. Medicaid coverage at diagnosis showed lower adjusted ORs of delay compared with private insurance (cohort A: adjusted OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.92; cohort B: adjusted OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.85). Compared with whites, Latinos had 53% and 95% higher adjusted ORs of delay (P<.05) in cohorts A and B, respectively, and African Americans had a higher adjusted OR in cohort A (1.56; 95% CI, 1.19-2.04). The health care factors showed similar effects on delay of greater than 6 months.

Conclusions: Medicaid insurance and a usual source of care were protective against delay after HIV diagnosis. After full adjustment, delay was still greater for Latinos and, to a lesser extent, African Americans compared with whites.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage*
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Delivery of Health Care*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • Health Care Surveys
  • Health Policy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / ethnology
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Time Factors
  • United States


  • Anti-HIV Agents