Carbonated hydroxyapatites precipitated in the presence of Ti

J Inorg Biochem. 2000 Jul 15;81(1-2):57-63. doi: 10.1016/s0162-0134(00)00115-x.


Hydroxyapatites (HA) were prepared by precipitation from an aqueous solution with Ti4+ (0-2500 microg/g) and with carbonate (0.8-4.0%) at pH 7.0. The uptake of Ti was found to be 75% of the original amounts. Stoichiometric ratios of Ca/P (1.67) were found for low carbonate samples. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy have shown that samples have structural data characteristic for HA. Heat treatment and thermogravimetric analysis (20-900 degrees C) have shown carbonate decomposition enhanced by the presence of Ti and no transformation of the HA structure. It was also found that 0.2 mol of adsorbed and 0.6-0.8 mol of crystalline water are released from the samples during heating. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of plate like crystals which increase in size with increase of carbonate content. Samples with high carbonate and high Ti content have irregular shape and are sensitive to electron beam irradiation as opposed to non-doped samples. Ti appears to have a destabilizing effect on HA. The incorporation of Ti in HA and the biological relevance of Ti in bone crystals is discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Carbonates
  • Hydroxyapatites / chemical synthesis
  • Hydroxyapatites / chemistry*
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Molecular Conformation
  • Solutions
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Thermogravimetry
  • Titanium*
  • X-Ray Diffraction


  • Carbonates
  • Hydroxyapatites
  • Solutions
  • Titanium