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Review
. Sep-Oct 2000;71(1-2):163-74.
doi: 10.1006/mgme.2000.3069.

RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: A Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation Syndrome Due to an Inborn Error of Cholesterol Biosynthesis

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Review

RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: A Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation Syndrome Due to an Inborn Error of Cholesterol Biosynthesis

F D Porter. Mol Genet Metab. .

Abstract

The RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (RSH/SLOS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome caused by an inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis. The RSH/SLOS phenotypic spectrum is broad; however, typical features include microcephaly, ptosis, a small upturned nose, micrognathia, postaxial polydactaly, second and third toe syndactaly, genital anomalies, growth failure, and mental retardation. RSH/SLOS is due to a deficiency of the 3beta-hydroxysterol Delta(7)-reductase, which catalyzes the reduction of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to cholesterol. This inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis results in elevated serum and tissue 7-DHC levels. The 3beta-hydroxysterol Delta(7)-reductase gene (DHCR7) maps to chromosome 11q12-13, and to date 66 different mutations of this gene have been identified in RSH/SLOS patients. Identification of the biochemical basis of RSH/SLOS has led to development of therapeutic regimens based on dietary cholesterol supplementation and has increased our understanding of the role cholesterol plays during embryonic development.

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