Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD), including Zellweger syndrome, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, and infantile Refsum disease, are a group of genetically heterogeneous autosomal-recessive diseases caused by mutations in PEX genes that encode peroxins, proteins required for peroxisome biogenesis. Zellweger syndrome patients present the most severe phenotype, whereas neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy patients are intermediate and infantile Refsum disease patients have the mildest features. PEX6 is a causative gene for PBD of complementation group C (CG-C) and encodes the peroxin Pex6p, one of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities and a member of the same family of proteins as Pex1p, a causative protein for PBD of CG-E (CG1). Here, we identified the temperature sensitivity of peroxisomes in the fibroblasts of a patient with neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy in CG-C. Peroxisomes were morphologically and biochemically formed at 30 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C. This patient was homozygous for a missense mutation, T-->C at nucleotide 170 resulting in a change from leucine to proline at amino acid 57 (L57P) in Pex6p. CG-C cell mutants (ZP92) in the Chinese hamster ovary transfected with L57P in HsPEX6 revealed the same temperature-sensitive phenotype. However, PEX1-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants (ZP101) transfected with L111P in PEX1, the counterpart to L57P in PEX6, showed no temperature sensitivity. In addition, ZP92 transfected with G708D in PEX6, the counterpart to the temperature-sensitive mutation G843D in PEX1, revealed no temperature-sensitive phenotype. These results indicate that L57P in Pex6p is a temperature-sensitive mutation causing the milder phenotype in a patient with PBD in CG-C. They also indicate that the amino acid residues responsible for temperature sensitivity do not seem to be conserved between Pex6p and Pex1p.