The case of a 76-year-old woman with a submucosal tumor of the esophagus, whose principal symptoms were dysphagia and epigastric/retrosternal pain, is reported here. Endoscopy, barium swallow and a CAT scan all pointed to extramucosal localization. The lesion was located in the lower esophagus lying on the stomach fundus. An ulcer in the region of the cardia complicated the tumor. Two sets of conventional biopsies failed to detect malignancy, only inflammation and intestinal metaplasia were seen in the specimens of the mucosa surrounding the ulcer. The endoscopic ultrasonographic findings were an indistinct margin, hypoechogenicity, homogeneous appearance and location within the second and third echographic layer. The surgical resection of the tumor was complemented by an anterior partial fundoplication. The histologic study revealed an inflammatory fibroid polyp, which is a rare, benign, non-capsulated submucosal lesion composed mainly of loose connective tissue and vessels, with an eosinophilic inflammatory component. This lesion is seldom found in the esophagus.