M factors, which determine maleness in Musca domestica, were found on the second, third, fourth and fifth linkage groups in housefly populations of Turkey. As in European populations, the male-determining factor was more frequently located on linkage group III (MIII). Some males homozygous or double heterozygous for M factors were identified. Deviations from a 1:1 sex ratio in favour of males, as well as mosaics for somatic marker mutations and sexual mosaics (gynandromorphs), were also observed. The results reveal an extensive polymorphism in the sex-determining system.