Complete remission was observed in an adult patient with acute myelogenous leukemia after minimal monochemotherapy. Remission occurred after a severe febrile pneumonia and was accompanied by cytogenetic and molecular remission. The hypothesis of spontaneous remission was raised, even if a high sensitivity to low-dose cytostatics cannot be excluded. Such spontaneous complete remissions, often associated with bacterial infections and blood transfusions, are extremely rare, and are usually of short duration. Previous cases are summarized, and the role of etiologic factors is discussed.