Chromosome 2C of Aegilops cylindrica induces chromosomal rearrangements in alien chromosome addition lines, as well as in euploid lines, of common wheat. To induce chromosomal rearrangements in barley chromosome 7H, reciprocal crosses were made between a mutation-inducing common wheat line that carries a pair of 7H chromosomes and one 2C chromosome and a 7H disomic addition line of common wheat. Many shrivelled seeds were included in the progeny, which was an indication of the occurrence of chromosome mutations. The chromosomal constitution of the viable progeny was examined by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) using the barley subterminal repeat HvT01 as a probe. Structural changes of chromosome 7H were found in about 15% of the progeny of the reciprocal crosses. The aberrant 7H chromosomes were characterized by a combination of N-banding, FISH and genomic in situ hybridization. Mosaicism for aberrant 7H chromosomes was observed in seven plants. In total, 89 aberrant 7H chromosomes were identified in 82 plants, seven of which had double aberrations. More than half of the plants carried a simple deletion: four short-arm telosomes, one long-arm telosome, and 45 terminal deletions (23 in the short arm, 21 in the long arm, and one involving both arms). About 40% of the aberrations represented translocations between 7H and wheat chromosomes. Twenty of the translocations had wheat centromeres, 12 the 7H centromere, with translocation points in the 7HS (five) and in the 7HL (seven), and the remaining four were of Robertsonian type, three involving 7HS and one with 7HL. In addition, one translocation had a barley segment in an intercalary position of a wheat chromosome, and two were dicentric. The breakpoints of these aberrations were distributed along the entire length of chromosome 7H.