We evaluated the association between anthropometric measurements and death among pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) using data from the Pediatric Growth and Development Special Study (PGDSS) from the US Renal Data System. Height, growth velocity, and body mass index (BMI) were used for the analysis of 1,949 patients in the PGDSS. To standardize these measurements, SD scores (SDSs) were calculated using population data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the association between anthropometric measures and death, controlling for demographic factors and stratifying by age. Multivariate analysis showed that each decrease by 1 SDS in height was associated with a 14% increase in risk for death (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.27; P = 0.017). For each 1 SDS decrease in growth velocity among patients in our sample, the risk for death increased by 12% (aRR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.25; P = 0.043). There was a statistically significant U-shaped association between BMI and death (P = 0.001), with relatively low and high BMIs associated with an increased risk for death. In children with ESRD, growth delay and extremes in BMI are associated with an increased risk for mortality.