A 45-year-old woman developed acute nephritic syndrome after erythema infectiosum. Laboratory data on admission showed decreased serum C3, C4, and CH50 levels and the presence of both immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies to human parvovirus B19 (HPV). A renal biopsy showed diffuse endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated 2+ granular staining for IgG, IgM, and C3 over the mesangial area and along glomerular capillary walls. HPV antigen was also detected in glomeruli by immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy showed electron-dense deposits in the subendothelial space and the paramesangial area. These findings suggest that immune complex-type glomerulonephritis is caused by glomerular deposition of HPV antigen-antibody complexes in some patients with HPV infection.