Version 2000: the new beta-lactamases of Gram-negative bacteria at the dawn of the new millennium

Microbes Infect. 2000 Aug;2(10):1225-35. doi: 10.1016/s1286-4579(00)01276-4.


beta-lactamases of Gram-negative bacteria are evolving dynamically. New developments include the production of enzymes with novel substrate profiles, reduced susceptibility to beta-lactamase inhibitors, and the simultaneous production of multiple types of beta-lactamases. The changes represent evolutionary upgrades which provide modern pathogens with a greater potential to resist beta-lactam antibiotics and cause formidable therapeutic, infection control, and diagnostic challenges. This review is a clinically oriented outline of recent developments in the beta-lactamase production of Gram-negative bacteria.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Carbapenems / pharmacology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / enzymology
  • Humans
  • beta-Lactam Resistance
  • beta-Lactamase Inhibitors
  • beta-Lactamases* / classification
  • beta-Lactamases* / metabolism


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Carbapenems
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • beta-Lactamase Inhibitors
  • beta-Lactamases