Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide confers early phase insulin release to oral glucose in rats: demonstration by a receptor antagonist

Endocrinology. 2000 Oct;141(10):3710-6. doi: 10.1210/endo.141.10.7750.


A novel GIP receptor antagonist was developed to evaluate the acute role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in the insulin response to oral glucose in rats. Antisera to an extracellular epitope of the GIP receptor (GIPR) detected immunoreactive GIPR on rat pancreatic beta-cells. Purified GIPR antibody (GIPR Ab) specifically displaced GIP binding to the receptor and blocked GIP-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP. When delivered to rats by ip injection, GIPR Ab had a half-life of approximately 4 days. Treatment with GIPR Ab (1 microg/g BW) blocked the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP (60 pmol) but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, 60 pmol) in anesthetized rats. The insulin response to oral glucose was delayed in conscious unrestrained rats that were pretreated with GIPR Ab. Plasma insulin levels were approximately 35% lower at 10 min in GIPR Ab treated animals compared with controls. As a result, the glucose excursion was greater in the GIPR Ab treated group. Fasting plasma glucose levels were not altered by GIPR Ab. We conclude that release of GIP following oral glucose may act as an anticipatory signal to pancreatic beta-cells to promote rapid release of insulin for glucose disposal.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / physiology*
  • Glucose / pharmacology*
  • Glucose / physiology
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Immune Sera / blood
  • Immune Sera / immunology
  • Insulin / metabolism*
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / immunology
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / metabolism


  • Immune Sera
  • Insulin
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor
  • Glucose