Object: Telomerase activity is responsible for cell immortality. To examine the role of telomerase in the carcinogenesis of human glioblastomas multiforme (GBMs), the authors studied telomerase activity, telomerase component expression, and telomere lengths in 42 GBM samples.
Methods: In all samples, EGFR and MDM2 amplifications and overexpressions were examined using Southern and Northern blot analyses. The p53 mutation was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism and by direct sequence analysis. Specimens of tissues were immunostained with p53, EGFR, and MDM2 antibodies. Allelic loss on chromosomes 17p and 10 was assessed by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) assays. Telomerase activity, expression of its components (human telomerase reverse transcriptase [hTERT], human telomerase RNA component [hTERC], and telomerase-associated protein [TEP1]), and telomere lengths were analyzed using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)-hybridization protection assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Southern blot analysis. According to the results of assessments of EGFR and MDM2 amplifications, p53 mutation, LOHs in chromosomes 17p and 10, and the clinical course of the disease, the 42 samples were classified into 22 primary and 20 secondary glioblastomas. Twenty-six (61.9%) of all 42 samples demonstrated detectable telomerase activity during the TRAP assay. Secondary GBMs displayed significantly higher levels of telomerase activity and hTERT expression than primary GBMs. Tumors with a p53 gene mutation demonstrated significantly higher telomerase activity than those without a p53 mutation. Four samples with a codon 175 mutation demonstrated an exceptionally high amount of telomerase activity. In secondary GBMs, the increase in telomerase activity and the hTERT expression level correlated with the increased frequency of p53 mutations. There was no significant difference in telomere length between primary and secondary GBMs.
Conclusions: These results suggest that telomerase activity and p53 mutations both play important roles in the multistep carcinogenesis of GBMs. Telomerase activity and hTERT expression may be considered as novel distinctive factors in human GBMs.